Time and Tense-Past Tense

Time and Tense-Past Tense 

Past Tense से भूतकाल का बोध होता है और इसके भी 4 रूप होते हैं। How To Grammar Rules Of Time and Tense-Past Tense

1. Past Indefinite

2. Past continuous

3. Past Perfect 

4. Past Perfect Continuous

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1. Past Indefinite Tense-

इससे यह पता चलता है कि कोई काम भूतकाल में सामान्य रूप से हुआ था। इसकी बनावट ऐसी होती है।

Sub + V2 +…….

I played a match.

She did this work.

I ate food.

How To Grammar Rules Of Time and Tense-Past Tense

Uses of Past Indefinite Tense- 

1. यदि किसी वाक्य में ago, yesterday, last week, last month, last year आदि शब्दों का उपयोग समय बताने के लिए किया गया हो, तो उस वाक्य की बनावट Past Indefinite Tense की होती है।

I did not complete my work last night.

Raju came here yesterday.

2. Past time की आदत को बताने के लिए भी निम्न शब्दों के साथ इसका उपयोग किया जाता है।

Often, always, daily, everyday, every week, every month, every year, etc

Raju always came late.

She often invited us to dinner.

Note: Past की Habit बताने के लिए Used to का उपयोग किया जाता है।

She used to walk in the morning.

I used to take milk everyday.

3. Past time की दो  साथ साथ होने वाली क्रिया को बताने के लिए भी Past Indefinite Tense का उपयोग किया जाता है।

I wrote while the children played.

How To Grammar Rules Of Time and Tense-Past Tense

4. जब Past time में कोई एक क्रिया जारी थी, उसके साथ ही दूसरी घटना घटी तो उसे  Past Indefinite Tense में रखा जाता है।

When you were sleeping, she came.

When Raju was studying, his father arrived.

5. Present time की unfulfilled desire, wish, condition को बताने के लिए As if, I wish, As though, It is time आदि के साथ भी Past Indefinite Tense का उपयोग किया जाता है।

I wish I were a king.

She speaks as if she is the principal.

It is time you went there.

Basic structure of Past Indefinite Tense-

Affirmative: Past Indefinite Tense

Sub + V2 +…..

They came yesterday.

She invited me.

The police caught the thief.

Negative: Past Indefinite Tense

Sub + did not + V1 +….

They did not come yesterday.

She did not invite me.

The police did not catch the thief.

Interrogative: Past Indefinite Tense

Did + Sub + V1 +….?

Did they come yesterday?

Did she invite me?

Did the police catch the thief?

Interrogative-Negative: Past Indefinite Tense

Did + Sub + not + V1 +….?

Did they not come yesterday?

Did she not invite me?

Did the police not catch the thief?

Wh word Question: Past Indefinite Tense

Wh word + did + Sub + not + V1 +….?

Who came yesterday?

Why did she invite me?

How did the police catch the thief?

How To Grammar Rules Of Time and Tense-Past Tense

2. Past Continuous Tense-

इससे यह बोध होता है कि भूतकाल में कोई कार्य जारी था। इसकी बनावट इस प्रकार की होती है।

Sub + was/were Ving + …..

I was reading a book.

They were helping people.

Uses of Past Continuous Tense- 

1. यदि किसी वाक्य में Then, those days शब्द का उपयोग समय बताने के लिए किया गया हो, तो उस वाक्य की क्रिया Past Continuous Tense में रहती है।

She was reading then.

They were playing together those days.

2. Past time की दो साथ साथ जारी रहने वाली क्रिया को बताने के लिए भी Past Continuous Tense का उपयोग किया जाता है।

While my son was playing, I was writing.

She was cooking food while her daughter was studying.

3. Past Time में Increase या Decrease को बताने के लिए grow, get, become के साथ Past Continuous Tense उपयोग किया जाता है।

She was becoming taller and taller.

The atmosphere was getting hotter and hotter.

Basic structure of Past Continuous Tense-

Affirmative: Past Continuous Tense

Sub + was/were + Ving +……

I was writing a letter.

She was dancing at the party.

We were playing cricket.

Raju was learning English.

Negative: Past Continuous Tense

Sub + was/were + not + Ving +……

I was not writing a letter.

She was not dancing at the party.

We were not playing cricket.

Raju was not learning English.

Interrogative: Past Continuous Tense

Was/Were + Sub + Ving +……?

 Was I  writing a letter?

Was she dancing at the party?

Were we playing cricket?

Was Raju learning English?

Interrogative-Negative: Past Continuous Tense

Was/Were + Sub + not + Ving +……?

Was I not  writing a letter?

Was she not dancing at the party?

Were we not playing cricket?

Was Raju not learning English?

Wh word Question: Past Continuous Tense

Wh word + was/were + Sub + Ving +……?

What was I  writing?

Why was she dancing at the party?

What were we playing?

Why was Raju learning English?

How To Grammar Rules Of Time and Tense-Past Tense

3. Past Perfect Tense- 

इससे यह बोध होता है कि कोई कार्य भूतकाल में हुआ था। इसकी बनावट ऐसी  होती है।

Sub + had + V3 +…..

I had eaten food.

She had done many works.

Note:- यदि कोई वाक्य Past Perfect Tense में अकेला है, तथा  वाक्य में सिर्फ एक Subject और सिर्फ एक Verb का उपयोग किया गया है, तब उस वाक्य की रचना Past Indefinite Tense में होती है।

Uses of Past Perfect Tense- 

1. यदि वाक्य में दो भागों का संबंध भूतकाल के साथ है और ऐसे वाक्य के दोनों भाग Before या After के द्वारा जुड़े हुए हैं, तब वाक्य के जिस भाग की क्रिया पहले होती उस भाग के साथ हम Past Perfect Tense का उपयोग करते हैं और जिस भाग की क्रिया बाद में होती है, उसके साथ हम Past Indefinite Tense  का उपयोग करते हैं। जैसे-

मेरे आने के पहले वह चला गया था।

उसके जाने के बाद मैं आया।

यदि ऐसे वाक्य के दोनों भाग Before के द्वारा जुड़े हो, तब वाक्य के जिस भाग की क्रिया Past Indefinite Tense में होती है, उसका उपयोग हम Before के बाद करते हैं।

He had gone before I came.

परंतु यदि वाक्य के दोनों भाग After के द्वारा जुड़े हो, तब वाक्य के जिस भाग की क्रिया Past Indefinite Tense में होती है, उस भाग का उपयोग हम After के पहले करते हैं और जिस भाग की किया Past Perfect Tense में होती है, उसका उपयोग हम After बाद करते हैं।

उसके जाने के बाद मैं आया।

I came after he had gone.

उसके जाने के पहले मैं आ गया था।

I had come before he had gone.

How To Grammar Rules Of Time and Tense-Past Tense

2. यदि वाक्य के दोनों भागों का संबंध भूतकाल के साथ हो और वाक्य के एक भाग के पहले किसी शर्त (If) का उपयोग किया गया हो, तब वाक्य के जिस भाग के पहले शर्त का उपयोग किया जाता है, उस भाग की क्रिया Past Perfect Tense में होती है और वाक्य के दूसरे भाग के साथ सहायक क्रिया के रूप में Would have का तथा मुख्य क्रिया के रूप में V3 का उपयोग किया जाता है। इसे Unreal Past Condition कहा जाता है। ऐसे वाक्यों की बनावट इस प्रकार की होती है।

If + Sub + had + V3, Sub + would have + V3 + …….

इस पर आधारित वाक्य देखिए-

If you had played well you would have won the match.

If he had come I would have helped him.

If she had known his address she would have told us.

Basic Structure of Past Perfect Tense

Affirmative: Past Perfect Tense

Sub + had + V3 +….

I had taught many students.

India had won the match.

Raju had sold his car.

Negative: Past Perfect Tense

Sub + had + not + V3 +….

I had not taught many students.

India had not won the match.

Raju had not sold his car.

Interrogative: Past Perfect Tense

Had + Sub + V3 +….?

 Had I taught many students?

 Had India won the match?

 Had Raju sold his car?

Interrogative-Negative: Past Perfect Tense

Had + Sub + not + V3 +….?

Had I not taught many students?

Had India not won the match?

Had Raju not sold his car?

Wh word Question: Past Perfect Tense

Wh word + had + Sub + V3 +….?

Who had taught many students?

 How had India won the match?

 Who had sold his car?

How To Grammar Rules Of Time and Tense-Past Tense

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense-

इससे यह बोध होता है कि कोई काम भूतकाल में शुरू होकर कुछ समय तक जारी रहने के बाद भूतकाल में ही समाप्त हो गया। इसकी बनावट ऐसी होती है।

Sub + had + been + Ving + for/since +…..

He had been reading since morning.

She had been sleeping for 7 hours.

Basic Structure of Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Affirmative: Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Sub + had + been + Ving + for/since +…..

I had been teaching English for 25 years.

She had been doing this work since morning.

We had been talking for many hours.

Negative: Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Sub + had + not + been + Ving + for/since +…..

I had not been teaching English for 25 years.

She had not been doing this work since morning.

We had not been talking for many hours.

Interrogative: Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Had + Sub + been + Ving + for/since +….?

Had I been teaching English for 25 years?

Had she been doing this work since morning?

Had we been talking for many hours?

Interrogative-Negative: Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Had + Sub + not + been + Ving + for/since +…..?

Had I not been teaching English for 25 years?

Had she not been doing this work since morning?

Had we not been talking for many hours?

Wh word Question: Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Wh word + Had + Sub + been + Ving + for/since +…..?

What Had I been teaching for 25 years?

How Had she been doing this work since morning?

Why Had we been talking for many hours?

How To Grammar Rules Of Time and Tense-Past Tense

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