Subject-Verb agreement (Syntax)

Subject-Verb agreement (Syntax)

दोस्तों यह topic बहुत ही छोटा है और बहुत ही आसानी से इसे समझा जा सकता है। Subject-Verb agreement का अर्थ है जैसा subject हो, वैसी ही verb होना चाहिए। अर्थात यदि subject singular हो तो verb भी singular होना चाहिए। और यदि subject plural हो तो verb भी plural होना चाहिए। अर्थात इस Topic में आपको बस इतना ही सीखना है की subject का number क्या है? How To Learn English Grammar Rules Competition

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यदि आपको subject का number पता है, तो आप बहुत ही आसानी से इस topic पर आधारित प्रश्नों को हल कर लेंगे। 

कहने का अर्थ यह है कि जिस भी शब्द का उपयोग हम subject के रूप में करेंगे,  वह या तो singular होगा या plural आपको बस यही पता करना है। उसके ही अनुसार आपको verb का उपयोग करना है। तो सबसे पहले हम यह देख लेते हैं कि कौन सा subject singular है और कौन सा subject plural है।

1. Singular subject के साथ singular verb तथा plural subject के साथ plural verb का उपयोग किया जाता है।

Singular Subject       Plural Subject

I                      We

You                 You

He                   They

She                 They

It                      They

Boy                  Boys

Man                  Men

Loaf                  Loaves

Singular verb      Plural verb

Goes                  Go

Does                   Do

Is                         Are

Am                      Are

Was                     Were

Has                      Have

Had                      Had

Did                       Did

Note: modal verbs (will, shall, may, can, would, should, might, could, ought to, must, need not, dare not, used to) का उपयोग singular और plural  subjects के साथ एक ही रूप में होता है। How To Learn English Grammar Rules Competition

सभी के उदाहरण देखिए-

This apple is very sweet. (✓)

This apple are very sweet. (×)

My dog helps everyone. (✓)

My dog help everyone. (×)

These mangoes are not very sweet. (✓)

These mangoes is not very sweet. (×)

The girls were playing hockey. (✓)

The girls was playing hockey. (×)

My children do their homework. (✓)

My children does their homework. (×)

2. जब दो या दो से अधिक singular subjects को and से जोड़ा जाता है, तब उनके साथ हमेशा ही plural verb का उपयोग किया जाता है।

Ramu and Raju are watching a movie. (✓)

Ramu and Raju is watching a movie. (×)

3. लेकिन यदि दो singular nouns को and के द्वारा जोड़ा जाता है, और यदि वे एक ही व्यक्ति अथवा वस्तु का बोध कराते हैं, तो उनके साथ हम हमेशा ही singular verb का उपयोग करते हैं। How To Learn English Grammar Rules Competition

A black and white cow is grazing in the field. (✓)

A black and white cow are grazing in the field. (×)

The principal and teacher have just gone. (×)

The principal and teacher has just gone. (✓)

Note: अब सीधी सी बात है कि हमें कैसे पता चलेगा कि एक ही व्यक्ति या वस्तु का बोध कराया जा रहा है, 

तो इस स्थिति में article (a /an/ the ) का उपयोग सिर्फ पहले noun के साथ किया जाता है।

यदि दो भिन्न वस्तु या व्यक्तियों का अर्थ प्रकट करना हो तो article (a /an/ the ) का उपयोग प्रत्येक noun के पहले किया जाता है और verb भी इसके अनुसार ही रखी जाती है।

A black and a white cow is grazing in the field. (×)

A black and a white cow are grazing in the field.(✓)

The principal and the teacher have just gone. (✓)

The principal and the teacher has just gone. (×)

How To Learn English Grammar Rules Competition

4. दोस्तों, कुछ nouns ऐसे होते हैं, जो एक जोड़े के रूप में उपयोग किए जाते हैं, तथा वे एक ही idea को व्यक्त करते हैं। ऐसे pair of nouns के साथ हम singular verb का उपयोग करते हैं। अब नीचे इनमें से कुछ pair of nouns दिए जा रहे हैं, जिन्हें आप को परीक्षा के दृष्टिकोण से याद रखना चाहिए देखिए।

Bread and butter, Bread and milk, Rice and curry

Horse and carriage, Slow and steady

Summary and substance, Pen and ink

Slow and steady win the race. (×)

Slow and steady wins the race. (✓)

The horse and carriage is waiting for us. (✓)

The horse and carriage are waiting for us. (×)

Rice and curry are tasty dish. (×)

Rice and curry is a tasty dish. (✓)

Bread and milk is a wholesome food. (✓)

Bread and milk are wholesome food. (×)

How To Learn English Grammar Rules Competition

5. यदि and से जुड़े singular Subject के पहले each या every का उपयोग किया जाता है, तो हम साधारणतया इसके साथ singular verb का उपयोग करते हैं। देखिए।

Each boy and each girl was punished. (✓)

Each boy and each girl were punished. (×)

Every man, woman and child is happy. (✓)

Every man, woman and child are happy. (×)

Every boy and girl was rewarded. (✓)

Every boy and girl were rewarded. (×)

6. यदि or अथवा nor से दो personal pronouns को जोड़ा जाए, तो उन्हें निम्न क्रम से रखना होता है।

 Second person (you), third person (he), first person (I) तथा verb को उसके निकटवर्ती subject के अनुसार रखा जाता है।

Either he or I is at fault. (×)

Either he or I am at fault. (✓)

Neither you nor he are at fault. (×)

Neither you nor he is at fault. (✓)

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7. Each, Either अथवा Neither का उपयोग जब subject के स्थान पर किया जाता है तो singular verb का उपयोग किया जाता है। Subject-Verb agreement (Syntax)

He has two daughters, either are able to do the sum. (×)

He has two daughters, either is able to do the sum. (✓)

Each have come. (×)

Each has come. (✓)

8. Each every either तथा neither के साथ noun तथा singular verb का उपयोग किया जाता है।

Every students have passed. (×)

Every students has passed. (×)

Every student has passed. (✓)

Either students are able to do the sum. (×)

Either student are able to do the sum. (×)

Either student is able to do the sum. (✓)

Note: लेकिन either of, Each of, neither of के बाद plural noun या pronoun तथा singular verb का उपयोग किया जाता है।

Each of them teach English. (×)

Each of them teaches English. (✓)

Either of you are to be punished. (×)

Either of you is to be punished. (✓)

 of them helps the poor. (✓)

Neither of them help the poor. (×)

Each of the students have to go. (×)

Each of the students has to go. (✓)

How To Learn English Grammar Rules Competition

9. Collective noun जब single body के रूप में उपयोग किया जाता है तो उसके साथ singular verb तथा Pronoun it/it’s का उपयोग किया जाता है परंतु जब इससे individual members/ units का अर्थ प्रकट होता है तो plural verb तथा pronoun them/ their का उपयोग किया जाता है।

कुछ उदाहरण- government, committee, board, federation, public, jury, etc

The jury have given its verdict. (×)

The jury has given its verdict. (✓)

The jury was divided in their opinions. (×)

The jury were divided in their opinions. (✓)

10. Relative pronoun के ठीक बाद इसके antecedent (पूरक) के अनुसार singular अथवा plural verb का उपयोग किया जाता है।

She is the girl who have helped me. (×)

She is the girl who has helped me. (✓)

One of the best students that has come will be rewarded. (×)

One of the best students that have come will be rewarded.(✓)

Note: लेकिन relative clause का verb अपने antecedent के अनुसार आता है। जैसे

I, who is your friend will not work with you. (×)

I, who am your friend will not work with you. (✓)

You, who is my senior should teach me. (×)

You, who are my senior should teach me. (✓)

How To Learn English Grammar Rules Competition

11. A number of के साथ plural noun तथा plural verb का उपयोग किया जाता है, जबकि the number of के साथ plural noun तथा singular verb का उपयोग किया जाता है। 

A number of boys has come. (×)

A number of boy has come. (×)

A number of boys have come. (✓)

The number of students are increasing. (×)

The number of student is increasing. (×)

The number of students is increasing. (✓)

12. Many, A good many, तथा A great many के बाद plural noun तथा plural verb का उपयोग किया जाता है। जबकि many a/an के बाद singular noun तथा singular verb का उपयोग किया जाता है।

Many student has participated here. (×)

Many students have participated here. (✓)

A good many musician has come. (×)

A good many musician have come. (×)

A good many musicians have come. (✓)

A good many musicians has come. (×)

Many a students have been rewarded. (×)

Many a student have been rewarded. (×)

Many a student has been rewarded. (✓)

13. Everyone, Everybody, Someone, Somebody, No one, Nobody, Anyone, Anybody, Anything, Nothing के साथ singular verb का उपयोग किया जाता है।

Everyone were punished. (×)

Everyone was punished. (✓)

Nothing were lost. (×)

Nothing was lost. (✓)

Nobody know the fact. (×)

Nobody knows the fact. (✓)

How To Learn English Grammar Rules Competition

14. Few, A few, The few के बाद plural noun तथा plural verb का उपयोग किया जाता है।

जबकि Little, A little, The Little के बाद Uncountable Noun तथा singular verb का उपयोग किया जाता है। 

A few boys has come.(×)

A few boys have come. (✓)

A little money were spent. (×)

A little money was spent. (✓)

15. यदि दो subject, as well as, with, together with, along with, in addition to, rather than, and not से जुड़े हो, तो verb पहले subject के अनुसार उपयोग की जाती है।

Raju as well as his friends are coming. (×)

Raju as well as his friends is coming. (✓)

Raju and not you have done it. (×)

Raju and not you has done it. (✓)

The teacher with all his students were present. (×)

The teacher with all his students was present. (✓)

Ram rather than you, have to go. (×)

Ram rather than you, has to go. (✓)

He as well as his parents have come. (×)

He as well as his parents has come. (✓)

16. जब दो subjects को neither…..nor, either….. or, not only…… but also से जोड़ा जाता है तो verb अपने पास (near) के subject के अनुसार  singular अथवा plural होती है।

Either you or he are to go. (×)

Either you or he is to go. (✓)

Neither the parents nor the sons has come. (×)

Neither the parents nor the sons have come. (✓)

Not only the director but also the students were present. (✓)

Not only the director but also the students was present. (×)

How To Learn English Grammar Rules Competition

17. एक निश्चित समय (time), दूरी (distance), रकम (amount) आदि को बताने के लिए singular verb का उपयोग किया जाता है।

Fifty kilometres is long distance. (✓)

Fifty kilometres are long distance. (×)

One thousand rupees is big amount. (✓)

One thousand rupees are big amount. (×)

18. A word of collective noun+of+PCN+SV

A band of musician has come. (×)

A band of musicians have come. (×)

A band of musicians has come. (✓)

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