Time and Tense-Present Tense

Time and Tense-Present Tense

Tense 3 होते हैं- How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense

1. Present Tense

2. Past Tense

3. Future Tense

हर Tense के 4 भाग होते हैं-

1. Indefinite Tense

2. Continuous Tense

3. Perfect Tense

4. Perfect continuous Tense

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1. Present Indefinite Tense

जब कोई कार्य वर्तमान समय में सामान्य रूप से होता है या किया जाता है, तो Present Indefinite Tense का उपयोग किया जाता है। इसकी बनावट होती है-

Subject + Verb1 +……

Uses of Present Indefinite Tense- 

1. वर्तमान समय की आदतों को बताने के लिए-

Mohan goes to school.

She reads novels.

2. यदि किसी वाक्य में always, regularly everyday, daily आदि शब्द समय का बोध कराएं तो  हम Present Indefinite Tense का उपयोग करते हैं।

They always complain.

Mohan goes to school everyday.

They drink daily.

How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense

3. भविष्य (Future) की किसी निश्चित योजना को बताने के लिए भी Present Indefinite Tense का उपयोग किया जाता है।

Schools reopen in July.

The Prime Minister visits the USA.

4. Universal truth के लिए भी Present Indefinite Tense का उपयोग किया जाता है।

The earth moves around the sun.

The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.

5. शर्त सूचक वाक्यों में जब if, before, when, after, until, unless, as soon as, in case, till आदि शब्द आए तो हम Present Indefinite Tense का उपयोग करते हैं।

If she invites me I will attend the party.

If they ask me I will help them.

As soon as I earn  money I will give you.

You will not get success, unless you work hard.

Don’t go anywhere, until I come back.

How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense

Basic structure of Present Indefinite Tense-

Affirmative: Present Indefinite Tense

Sub + V1/V5 +…….

Ram plays hockey.

They live in Bhopal.

I teach English.

We help people.

Negative: Present Indefinite Tense

Sub + do not/does not + V1 +……

Ram does not play hockey.

They do not live in Bhopal.

I do not teach English.

We do not help people.

Interrogative: Present Indefinite Tense

Do / Does + Sub + V1 +…..?

Does Ram play hockey?

Do they live in Bhopal?

Do I teach English?

Do we help people?

Interrogative-Negative: Present Indefinite Tense

Do / Does + Sub + not + V1 +…..?

Does Ram not play hockey?

Do they not live in Bhopal?

Do I not teach English?

Do we not help people?

How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense

Wh word Question: Present Indefinite Tense

Wh word + do / does + Sub + V1 +…..?

What does Ram play?

Where do they live?

What do I teach?

Why do we help people?

2. Present Continuous Tense

इससे यह पता चलता है कि कोई कार्य वर्तमान समय में चल रहा है या जारी है। इसकी बनावट ऐसी होती है।

Sub + is/am/are + Ving +……

I am talking to you.

She is learning English.

They are doing their work.

How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense

Uses of Present Continuous Tense- 

1. यदि हम these days, at present, at this moment, now आदि का उपयोग समय बताने के लिए करें, तब हमें वाक्य को Present Continuous Tense में बनाना पड़ेगा।

I am teaching now.

She is learning English these days.

2. निकट भविष्य की योजना को बताने के लिए भी Present Continuous Tense का उपयोग किया जाता है।

We are meeting the principal tomorrow.

She is leaving for Bhopal tonight.

3. निम्न  Verbs का उपयोग सामान्यतः Present Continuous Tense में नहीं किया जाता है। 

seem, appear, recognise, see, hear, smell, taste, look, love, wish, mean, suppose, consist, comprise, belong. resemble need, dare

These questions are seeming to be difficult. (×)

These questions seem to be difficult. (✓)

I am thinking he has done well. (×)

I think he has done well. (✓)

I am seeing they do not read. (×)

I see they do not read. (✓)

How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense

Basic Structure of Present Continuous Tense-

Affirmative: Present Continuous Tense

Sub + is/am/are + Ving +……

I am writing a letter.

She is dancing at the party.

We are playing cricket.

Raju is learning English.

Negative: Present Continuous Tense

Sub + is/am/are + not + Ving +……

I am not writing a letter.

She is not dancing at the party.

We are not playing cricket.

Raju is not learning English.

Interrogative: Present Continuous Tense

Is/am/are + Sub + Ving +……?

 Am I  writing a letter?

Is she dancing at the party?

Are we playing cricket?

Is Raju learning English?

How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense

Interrogative-Negative: Present Continuous Tense

Is/am/are + Sub + not + Ving +……?

Am I not  writing a letter?

Is she not dancing at the party?

Are we not playing cricket?

Is Raju not learning English?

Wh word Question: Present Continuous Tense

Wh word + Is/am/are + Sub + Ving +……?

What am I  writing?

Why is she dancing at the party?

What are we playing?

Why is Raju learning English?

3. Present Perfect Tense-

यदि कोई काम वर्तमान काल में अर्थात अभी-अभी समाप्त हुआ है तो इसकी बनावट Present Perfect Tense में होती है।

Sub + has/have + V3 +…..

She has not finished her work yet.

They have won the match.

How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense

Uses of Present Perfect- 

1. Past Time में संपन्न हुए कार्य का प्रभाव यदि वर्तमान में हो तो Present Perfect Tense का उपयोग किया जाता है।

We have seen the Taj Mahal.

I have visited Shimla twice.

She has passed 12th class.

2. Present Perfect Continuous के अर्थ में भी Present Perfect Tense का उपयोग किया जाता है।

I have lived in Ujjain for 25 years.

Raju has worked in this company since 2010.

He has taught in this college for a long time.

3. यदि किसी वाक्य में already, just ( दोनों का उपयोग Positive Sentence में) और yet (उपयोग Negative Sentence में) का उपयोग हो तो वह Present Perfect Tense  का उपयोग किया जाता है।

She has just finished her work.

I have already eaten my lunch.

They have just left the class.

He has not come yet.

Basic Structure of Present Perfect Tense-

Affirmative: Present Perfect Tense

Sub + has/ have + V3 +….

I have taught many students.

India has won the match.

Raju has sold his car.

How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense

Negative: Present Perfect Tense

Sub + has/ have + not + V3 +….

I have not taught many students.

India has not won the match.

Raju has not sold his car.

Interrogative: Present Perfect Tense

Has/Have + Sub + V3 +….?

 Have I taught many students?

 Has India won the match?

 Has Raju sold his car?

Interrogative-Negative: Present Perfect Tense

Has/Have + Sub + not + V3 +….?

Have I not taught many students?

Has India not won the match?

Has Raju not sold his car?

Wh word Question: Present Perfect Tense

Wh word + has/have + Sub + V3 +….?

Who has taught many students?

 How has India won the match?

 Who has sold his car?

How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense 

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense-

कोई काम भूतकाल में शुरू होकर वर्तमान काल में जारी हो, तो हम Present Perfect Continuous Tense का उपयोग करते हैं। इसकी बनावट इस तरह की होती है।

Affirmative: Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Sub + has/have + been + Ving + for/since +…..

I have been teaching English for 25 years.

She has been doing this work since morning.

We have been talking for many hours.

Negative: Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Sub + has/have + not + been + Ving + for/since +…..

I have not been teaching English for 25 years.

She has not been doing this work since morning.

We have not been talking for many hours.

Interrogative: Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Has/have + Sub + been + Ving + for/since +….?

Have I been teaching English for 25 years?

Has she been doing this work since morning?

Have we been talking for many hours?

Interrogative-Negative: Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Has/have + Sub + not + been + Ving + for/since +…..?

Have I not been teaching English for 25 years?

Has she not been doing this work since morning?

Have we not been talking for many hours?

Wh word Question: Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Wh word + has/have + Sub + been + Ving + for/since +…..?

What have I been teaching for 25 years?

How has she been doing this work since morning?

Why have we been talking for many hours?

How To Learn Time and Tense-Present Tense

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