Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Grammar

Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Grammar

प्यारे दोस्तों Direct-Indirect बहुत ही आसान टॉपिक है बस शर्त इतनी है कि आप व्यवहारिक ढंग से इसे सीखे। How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

कथन दो प्रकार के होते हैं- पहला प्रत्यक्ष कथन ( Direct Narration) और दूसरा अप्रत्यक्ष कथन (Indirect Narration)  

व्यवहारिक भाषा में यदि मैं आपको समझाऊं तो, जैसे मैं आपको कहूं कि “आप अच्छे दिख रहे हो“, तो यह कथन प्रत्यक्ष कथन हुआ और जब यही कथन आप किसी को कहें कि सर ने कहा है कि मैं अच्छा दिख रहा हूं तो यह हो गया अप्रत्यक्ष कथन।

प्रत्यक्ष कथन को Inverted Commas  के भीतर रखा जाता है। जैसे-

He says to me, “I am ill.”

अब आपको आसानी से नियम समझ में आए इसके लिए हम Inverted Commas के बाहर वाले वाक्य को 1 नंबर कहेंगे (He says to me,) और जो वाक्य Inverted Commas के अंदर है उसे हम 2 नंबर कहेंगे (“I am ill.”) । अब इन नंबर को याद रखिएगा क्योंकि इन्हें बदला भी जा सकता है अर्थात दो नंबर आगे आ सकता है और एक नंबर पीछे हो सकता है। बस आपको यह याद रखना है कि जो वाक्य Inverted Commas के अंदर है वह दो नंबर है और जो बाहर है वह एक नंबर है। Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Grammar

चलिए अब हम नियमों को याद करते हैं।

He says to me, “I am ill.” 

How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

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Noun-Competitive English Grammar

1. यदि 1 नंबर वाक्य Present या Future Tense में हो तो, 2 नंबर के वाक्य का Tense  नहीं बदलेगा। जैसे-

He says to me, “I will go to Indore.”

He says to me that he will go to Indore.

अब देखिए पहले वाक्य में Present Tense है जो कि says से पता चलता है तो हमने दूसरे वाक्य में will है उसे हमने indirect में भी will ही रखा है अर्थात Tense को नहीं बदला है।

2. यदि 1 नंबर का वाक्य Past Tense में हो तो, फिर 2 नंबर के वाक्य का Tense बदलेगा। 

Note- अब यदि Tense बदलना है तो कौन सा Tense किस Tense में बदलेगा यह हमें सीखना होगा। तो यह हमने नीचे बताया है।

Present Indefinite हो जाएगा Past Indefinite जैसे-

The boy said, “I attend my class regularly.”

The boy said that he attended his class regularly.

Present Continuous हो जाएगा Past Continuous जैसे-

He said to me, “I am reading.”

He told me that he was reading.

Present Perfect हो जाएगा Past perfect

Present Perfect Continuous हो जाएगा Past Perfect Continuous

Past Indefinite हो जाएगा Past perfect

Past continuous हो जाएगा Past Perfect Continuous

Past perfect- No change

Past perfect continuous-No change

Will हो जाएगा  Would

Shall हो जाएगा  Should

Can हो जाएगा  Could

May हो जाएगा  Might

Is/am/are हो जाएगा  was/were

Was/were हो जाएगा  had been

How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

Pronoun-English For Competitive Exam

आगे के नियमों को सीखने के लिए आपको नीचे लिखे persons का ज्ञान होना चाहिए। Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Grammar

First Person Singular- I, me, my, mine

First Person Plural- We, us, our, ours

Second Person– You, your, yours

Third person singular- He, him, his, She, her, hers, It, its

Third Person Plural- They, them, their, theirs

SON थ्योरी से हम इन नियमों को याद करेंगे।

SON में S अर्थात Subject, O अर्थात Object और N अर्थात न्यूट्रल।

अब नियम देखो।

3. यदि दूसरे वाक्य में First Person आए तो उसे हम पहले वाक्य के  Subject के अनुसार बदलेंगे। 

4. यदि दूसरे वाक्य में Second Person आए तो उसे हम पहले वाक्य के Object के अनुसार बदलेंगे। 

5. यदि दूसरे वाक्य में Third Person आए तू उसमें कोई बदलाव नहीं आएगा अर्थात वह न्यूट्रल रहेगा। 

Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Grammar

Nervous By English, Read It

6. Direct-Indirect बनाते समय निकटता सूचक शब्दों को दूरी सूचक शब्दों में बदल देते हैं। जैसे- this हो जाता है that 

इसी प्रकार अन्य है these-those, here-there, now-then, today-that day, tomorrow-the next day या the following day, yesterday-the previous day या the day before, hence-thence, ago-before, just-then, tonight-that night, last night-the previous night, next week-the following week, next month-the following month, next year-the following year

8. यदि said to के बाद कोई object आता है तो said to बदल कर told बन जाता है। जैसे-

He said to me, “I cannot tell you anything.”

He told me that he could not tell me anything.

Radha said to Mohini, “I have not brought your book.”

Radha told Mohini that she had not brought her book.

Adjective-English For Competitive Exam

How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

9. Said to के स्थान पर दो नंबर के वाक्य के भाव के अनुसार निम्न verb भी आ सकती है।

Replied, stated, informed, remarked, added, asserted, assured, pleaded, reported, reminded, complained

जैसे-

I said to my neighbour, “You are children have spoiled my garden.”

I complained to my neighbour that his children had spoiled my garden.

The culprit said, “I am innocent.”

The culprit pleaded that he was innocent.

10. Sir or Madam बदल कर respectfully हो जाता है। जैसे-

Raju said to his teacher, “Sir, I have forgotten to bring my book today.”

Raju told his teacher respectfully that he had forgotten to bring his book that day.

Verb-English Grammar For Competitive Exam

11. यदि this, these, here शुरू में आए तो उन्हें नहीं बदला जाता है। जैसे-

Rani said, “This is my book.”

Rani said that this was her book.

I said, “Here is the pen, I wanted.”

I said that here was the pen, I had wanted.

How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

12. Assertive sentences अर्थात कथन कारक वाक्यों में Inverted Commas को हटाकर conjunction that का उपयोग किया जाता है। जैसा कि आप सभी उदाहरण में देख सकते हो।

Note- अब हम इन सभी के एक-एक उदाहरण देख लेते हैं जिससे कि आपको आसानी से समझ में आ जाए।

ऊपर के नियमों को बार-बार पढ़कर Direct से Indirect में जो बदलाव आ रहा है उसे आप को ध्यान पूर्वक समझना है। 

The boy said, “I attend my class regularly.”

The boy said that he attended his class regularly.

He said to me, “I am reading.”

He told me that he was reading.

He said to Mohan, “I have given you some rupees.”

He told Mohan that he had given him some rupees.

I said to him, “I have been studying for 2 hours.”

I told him that I had been studying for 2 hours.

She said to her son, “You did not return me the book.”

She told her son that he had not returned her the book.

He said to me, “She was doing her computer course.”

He told me that she had been doing her computer course.

He said to me, “I had done this work.”

He said to me that he had done that work.

He said to Geeta, “The baby had been crying all night.”

He told Geeta that the baby had been crying all night.

He said to me, “I shall pay the bill.”

He told me that he would pay the bill.

He said to me, “You can read.”

He told me that I could read.

The teacher said to the student, “You are late today.”

The teacher told the student that he was late that day.

They said, “You will have to help me.”

They said that he would have to help them.

They said to us, “it may rain tonight.”

They told us that it might rain that night.

Rani said to him, “I lost my ring last night.”

Rani told him that she had lost her ring previous night.

They said, “We are going to invite him tomorrow.”

They said that they were going to invite him the next day.

The coolie said to me, “The train has arrived late today.”

The coolie told me that the train had arrived late that day.

How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

Adverb-English For Competitive Exam

Note- Exception- अपवाद

निम्नलिखित 7 अपवाद है जिन पर Tense बदलने का नियम लागू नहीं होता है। 

1. Universal truth शाश्वत सत्य

The teacher said, “the earth moves around the sun.”

The teacher said that the earth moves around the sun.

2.   Historical truth  ऐतिहासिक सच

The principal said, “India got freedom in 1947.”

The principal said that India got freedom in 1947.

3. Scientific fact वैज्ञानिक तथ्य

Newton said, “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.”

Newton said that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

4. Habitual truth आदतन सच

I said, “Dogs bark at strangers.”

I said that dogs bark at strangers.

5. Proverbial truth कहावत/मुहावरा

My father said, “Honesty is the best policy.”

My father said that honesty is the best policy.

6. Past Indefinite with time period

I said, “My brother lived in Bhopal for 2 years.”

I said that my brother lived in Bhopal for 2 years.”

7. Two actions in the past continuous tense

He said, “The speaker was speaking and the audience were cheering.”

He said that the speaker was speaking and the audience were cheering.”

Conjunction-Competitive English Grammar

How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

Interrogative sentences को direct से indirect में बदलना। 

1. Said to को asked or enquired में बदल देते हैं।

2. प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य को कथन कारक वाक्य में बदल देते हैं।

3. यदि प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य सहायक क्रिया से अर्थात is, am, are, are, was, were, do, does, did, may, might, can, could, will, would, has, have, had, must, से शुरू हुआ हो तो inverted commas के स्थान पर if/ whether का उपयोग करते हैं।

4. यदि प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य who, whose, whom, when, where, why, what, which, how, से शुरू हुआ हो तो, Inverted Commas के स्थान पर इसे ही उपयोग करते हैं।

5. प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य के साथ कभी भी That का उपयोग नहीं करते हैं।

अब आप उदाहरण की सहायता से इन नियमों को याद कीजिए।

I said to her, “is your mad?”

I asked her if her brother was mad.

He said to me, “Did you do this work?”

He asked me if I had done that work.

He said, “Shall I open the window?”

He asked if he should open the window.

He said to me, “Have you done your work?”

He asked me if I had done my work.

I said to Geeta, “Has your father purchased a new car?”

I asked Geeta if her father had purchased a new car.

He said, “can you help me?

He asked if I can help him.

The teacher said to the students, “should you look down upon the poor?”

The teacher asked the students if they should look down upon the poor.

The mother said to the son, “Do you take part in social activities?”

The mother asked the son whether he took part in social activities.

The little boy said to his father, “Why do you abuse me?”

The little boy asked his father why he abused him.

He said to me, “What are you writing?”

He asked me what I was writing.

Mohan said to Sohan, “Who teaches you English?”

Mohan asked Sohan who taught him English.

I said to him, “How can you trust a cheat?”

I asked him how he could trust a cheat.

Question tag-Competitive English Grammar

How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

Imperative sentences 

1. Imperative sentences का direct से indirect बनाते समय हम said के स्थान पर दो नंबर के वाक्य के अनुसार ordered, advised, suggested, forbade का उपयोग करते हैं। 

2. Inverted commas के स्थान पर to का उपयोग करते हैं। 

3. यदि वाक्य नकारात्मक हो तो not to का उपयोग करते हैं। उदाहरण देख कर नियमों को याद कीजिए।

The doctor said, “Take medicines regularly.”

The doctor advised to take the medicines regularly.

The teacher said to the boy, “Get out of the class.”

The teacher ordered the boy to get out of the class.

The teacher said to the students, “Do not make a noise.”

The teacher ordered the students not to make a noise. या

The teacher forbade (मना करना) the students to make a noise.

The master said to his servant, “Bring a glass of water.”

The master ordered his servant to bring a glass of water.

The doctor said to the patient, “Do not eat rice.”

The doctor advised the patient not to eat rice.

Note- यदि किसी imperative sentence में please या kindly का उपयोग होता है तो, उन्हें हटाकर said के स्थान पर requested का उपयोग करते हैं। जैसे-

He said to me, “Please, bring a glass of water.”

He requested me to bring a glass of water.

The old man said to me, “Please, help me.”

The old man requested me to help me.

Note- कुछ imperative sentence में let का उपयोग किया जाता है। इन्हें indirect बनाते समय said में परिवर्तन नहीं करते हैं या said को suggested या proposed भी कर सकते हैं। How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

Inverted commas के स्थान पर that का उपयोग करते हैं और let को हटाकर should का उपयोग करते हैं। उदाहरण देख कर बेहतर समझ में आ जाएगा।

The teacher said, “Let no one do this work.”

The teacher said that no one should do this work.

He said, “Let us work hard.”

He suggested that they/we should work hard.

The judge said, “Let the criminal be hanged.”

The judge ordered that the criminal should be hanged.

Optative sentence

Optative sentence को indirect बनाते समय said के स्थान पर blessed, cursed या wished का उपयोग करते हैं।

Inverted commas के स्थान पर that का उपयोग करते हैं तथा वाक्य को कथन कारक वाक्य में बदल देते हैं। जैसे-

He said to me, “May you live long!”

He blessed me that I might live long.

She said, “May you get first class my son !

She said that her son might get first class.

The old beggar said to the young lady, “May God bless you with the son !”

The old beggar wished that God might bless the young lady with the son.

The saint said to me, “May you prosper in your life!”

The saint wished that I might prosper in my life.

They said, “Long live our prime minister!”

They prayed to God for a long live of their prime minister.

How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

Note- अभिवादन जैसे- good morning, good bye, good night के स्थान पर bade का उपयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

He said to me, “Good morning, I will see you tomorrow.”

He bade me good morning and said that he would see me the next day.

The old beggar said, “If ! I could marry again lady.”

the old beggar wished that he could marry a rich lady.

He said, “O that ! I could see all countries of the world.”

He wished that he could see all countries of the world.

He said to me, “Good morning !”

He wished me good morning.

He said to me, Good noon, sir !”

He wished me a respectful good noon.

The departing leader said, “Goodbye countrymen !”

The departing leader bade his countrymen goodbye.

How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

Exclamatory sentence

Exclamatory sentence का indirect बनाते समय said के स्थान exclaimed with sorrow/exclaimed with joy/exclaimed with surprise का उपयोग किया जाता है।

और inverted commas के स्थान पर that का उपयोग करते हैं तथा वाक्य को साधारण बना देते हैं अर्थात exclamatory words को हटा देते हैं।

The student said, “Alas ! I have failed again.”

The student exclaimed with sorrow that he had failed again.

The father said to his son, “Bravo ! You did well.”

The father applauded his son saying that he had done well.

She said, “How lovely the child is !”

She exclaimed that the child was very lovely.

She said, “What a fool you are !”

She exclaimed that I was a great fool.

He said, “Alas ! I am ruined.”

He exclaimed with sorrow that he was ruined.

They said, “Hurrah ! We have won the match.”

they exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.

She said, “Alas ! We can’t achieve success.”

She exclaimed with sorrow that they couldn’t achieve success.

The captain said to the soldiers, “Bravo ! You have fought well.”

The captain applauded the soldiers saying that they had fought well.

How To Solve Narration-Direct-Indirect-English Exam

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  2. Pronoun-English For Competitive Exam
  3. Nervous By English, Read It
  4. Adjective-English For Competitive Exam
  5. Verb-English Grammar For Competitive Exam
  6. Adverb-English For Competitive Exam
  7. Conjunction-Competitive English Grammar
  8. Question tag-Competitive English Grammar
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