Superfluous Expressions and Slang

What are Superfluous expressions?  जो शब्द किसी शब्द के साथ अनावश्यक शब्दों का उपयोग कर बनाए जाते हैं उन्हें Superfluous expressions कहते हैं। जैसे-

For a long period of time

इसमें for a long period के बाद of time का उपयोग अनावश्यक है क्योंकि period का अर्थ ही अवधि या समय का भाग होता है। अतः for a long period या for a long time का उपयोग होगा ना कि  for a long period of time का।

What is slang?

वे शब्द अथवा वाक्यांश (words and phrases) जो advanced English में प्रयोग नहीं किए जाते हैं, बल्कि किसी खास या वर्ग विशेष के लोगों के द्वारा उपयोग किए जाते हैं slang कहलाते हैं।

Slang एक अनौपचारिक भाषा है। इसे एक विशेष संदर्भ में यानी बोलचाल की भाषा में उपयोग किया जाता है। उदाहरण के तौर पर हम कभी-कभी sister के लिए sis का उपयोग करते हैं।

Some important Superfluous Expressions and Slang 

01. Do mistake नहीं commit mistake सही वाक्यांश (phrase) है।

02. Supposing if में if का उपयोग अनावश्यक है।

03. Cousin brother/sister में brother/sister अनावश्यक है क्योंकि cousin का अर्थ ही चचेरा भाई/बहन है।

04. Consort husband /consort wife में husband, wife का उपयोग अनावश्यक है क्योंकि consort = husband or wife especially of a ruler = किसी शासक का पति या पत्नी।

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05. Final conclusion = conclusion

06. Funeral service = funeral

07. Kindly requested = requested

08. During the period of war/during the war period = during the war

09. Return back = return

10. Go/come back = return

11. Reimburse back = reimburse

12. Retreat back = retreat

13. Recede back = recede

14. Recall back = recall

15. Recapitulate back = recapitulate

16. Repeat back = repeat

17. Recast back = recast

18. Rewrite back = rewrite

19. Reborn again = Reborn

20. Rebuild again = rebuild

21. Regain again = regain

22. Reiterate again = reiterate

23. Recast again = recast

24. Recall again = recall

25. Recede again = recede

26. Override = prevail over

27. Overturn = turn over

28. Overshadow = throw a shadow over

29. Overshoot = shoot over

30. Overtop = rise over

31. Equally as good as = equally good

32. Equally as good as = as good as

33. Mutual agreement = agreement

34. Mutual friend = common friend

35. Mutual interest = common interest

36. Mutual dislike of each other = mutual dislike

37. Await for = await

38. Despite of = despite

39. Comprise of = comprise

40. Investigate into = investigate

41. Two twins = twins

42. Divide into four quarters = divide into four

43. Reason because = reason why/ reason that

This is the reason why he does not come.

44. Coward man = coward

45. Until, unless, prohibited, prevent, dissuade, deny, refuse, lest में not का अर्थ निहित है। अतः इनके बाद not का उपयोग नहीं होता है। जैसे-

He forbade me not to go out. (इसमें not का उपयोग अनावश्यक है।)

46. Flee away = flee (run away)

47. Relative pronouns who, which, that के पहले and का उपयोग अनावश्यक है। जैसे-

He is Raju and who is my friend. 

(इस वाक्य में who के पहले and का प्रयोग अनावश्यक है।)

48. Relative pronouns who, which, that के बाद इनके लिए प्रयुक्त antecedent के लिए किसी personal pronoun he, she, it, them का उपयोग अनावश्यक माना जाता है जैसे-

This is the ring which I bought it for you.

(इस वाक्य में bought के बाद it का उपयोग अनावश्यक है।)

49. Relative pronouns के पहले तथा वाक्य के अंत में अर्थात दोनों जगहों पर एक साथ preposition का उपयोग नहीं होना चाहिए जैसे-

This is the man to whom I was talking to.

(इस वाक्य के अंत में to का उपयोग गलत है।)

50. Suddenly come across में suddenly का उपयोग अनावश्यक है। क्योंकि come across = meet suddenly. इसलिए come across के बाद with का उपयोग गलत है।

51. With bag and baggage में with का प्रयोग अनावश्यक है, क्योंकि bag and baggage = with all belongings = सभी चीजों के साथ, बोरिया बिस्तर के साथ। अर्थात bag and baggage में with का अर्थ निहित है।

52. My family member के बदले a member of my family, 

all my family members  के बदले all the members of my family का उपयोग होगा। क्योंकि family member slang है।

53. An English teacher = a teacher who is an Englishman. किंतु a teacher of English = a teacher who teaches English.

अतः इस अर्थ को ध्यान में रखकर इनका उपयोग करना पड़ेगा। जैसे-

My brother is an English teacher. 

इस वाक्य में an English teacher के बदले a teacher of English का उपयोग करना पड़ेगा। सही यह होगा-

My brother is a teacher of English.

54. Passing marks  के बदले pass marks का उपयोग होता है।

Linking language/linking road के बदले link language/link road आदि का उपयोग होता है।

Some correct use of words and phrases 

01. Overturn (×) = Turnover (✓)

02. Proudly = proud

03. Word by word = word for word

04. Row after row = row upon row

05. Cut jokes = crack jokes

06. Fast enemies = sworn enemies

07. Cent percent = hundred percent

08. Teachers take examination = teachers give examination

09. Students give examination = students take examination

10. Misuse of power = abuse of power

11. Put your sign = put your signature

12. Give speech = make/deliver speech

13. Own father = father

14. Speak a lie = tell a lie

15. The ship drowned = the ship sank

16. He sank = he drowned

17. Comparatively better = comparatively good

18. Absolute perfect = perfect

19. Blunder mistake = mistake

20. Inhuman murder = brutal murder

21. Faith in God = believe in God

22. Current news = true news

23. Tough contest = close contest

24. Religious crime = religious sin

25. Great pain = severe pain

26. The all books = all the books

27. Keep words = keep word

28. A less salary = a smaller salary

29. Cent percent mark = full marks

30. Invented America = discovered America

31. Discovered the steam engine = invented the steam engine

32. Many a man were = many a man was/many men were

33. See television = watch television

34. Empty check = blank cheque

35. Completely black = Jet black

36. Tell the truth = speak the truth

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