Teaching Methods TET English Pedagogy Part-2

1. Grammar Translation Method

1. It is one of the oldest methods of teaching English in India.

2. It is the most popular teaching technique in India.

3. It is also known as the Classical/Traditional method.

4. Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.

5. Mostly the mother tongue is used.

6. Beginning with the key skills of reading and grammar

7. We do translation with the help of grammar.

8. R-W-rules-words better

9. L-S barbad

8. Grammar is taught deductively and directly.

9. Deductively means unknown to known.


1. The major limitation of this approach is the neglect of spoken language and natural speech.

2. Even though the learners become proficient in reading and writing in the target language, they cannot often negotiate a simple communicative encounter.

3. It is used to gain access to the literature in the target language, learn the structures and vocabulary for reading and writing and for translation from and into the target language.

4. A lot of emphasis is laid on accuracy of the content.

5. Much of vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.

6. isolated words- rote learning (ढेर सारे शब्द अलग से रटाकर याद करवाए जाते हैं।)

7. Written language में focus – accuracy पर रहता है।

8. Spoken language में focus fluency पर रहता है। Rules accurately use किए जाना चाहिए।

Q. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation in the……..method.

A. Audio-lingual

B. Grammar-translation



Q. Grammar translation method of teaching English heavily relies on:

A. Meaning focused teaching.

B. Form focused teaching.

C. Direct teaching as a strategy for learning.

D. Language use as the main focus.

2. Direct Method

1. It is also known as the Natural/Reformed method.

2. Opposite of grammar-translation method.

3. Learners talk directly in the target language just like English medium schools.

4. Use of mother tongue is discouraged.

5. Attention is on speaking and listening. (SL)

6. Grammar is taught inductively and indirectly.

7. Inductively means known to unknown.

8. Learners learn rules, structure and parts of speech after learning the target language.


1. We need a very proficient teacher.

2. Class should be little. Should not be overcrowded.

Q. The method of teaching foreign language without using the pupil’s first language is:

A. Direct method

B. Classical method

C. Grammar-translation method

D. Old method

TET English Pedagogy Part-2

3. Dr. West’s New Method

1. Basically it is for reading.

2. It was devised by Dr. Michael West.

3. It was against the Direct method.

4. Focuses on silent reading.

5. It favours judicious use of the mother tongue.

6. It ignores the skills of listening, speaking and writing.

4. Bilingual Method

1. It was developed by C.J. Dodson.

2. The help of mother tongue is also taken here along with the

target language.

3. Children are not allowed to use their mother tongue, teachers use it when needed.

4. Sandwich technique is used.

5. Sandwich means target language – mother tongue – target language. TL – MT – TL

5. Audio-Lingual Method

1. It is also called the army method.

2. It was used during World War II.

3. This pattern practice and drill produced only limited language.

4. Their ability to express themselves is limited to the set

phrases they have practised.

5. Proper language is not known by learners.

6. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

1. Socially acceptable and contextually appropriate language.

2. It develops learners proficiently.

3. Learners can express their thoughts properly.

4. Mostly child-centred.

5. Words should be related to topics.

Q. Communicative Language

Teaching replaced basically:

A. Natural language processing.

B. Structural teaching.

C. Situational language teaching.

D. Motivational Teaching.

Q. Which of the following approaches/method

advocates linguistic competence and performance?

A. Grammar translation method.

B. Communicative Approach.

C. Direct method.

D. Structural Approach.

TET English Pedagogy Part-2

7. Structural Approach

1. It is based on basic structures, sentences and phrases.

2. Alternative to the direct method of teaching.

3. A scientific selection and grading of structures,

patterns of sentences, vocabulary.

4. Very limited approach.

8. Situational Approach (SLT)

1. Context based.

2. At a railway station you learn about trains and travelling.

3. In the mall, you learn different words related to the things which are there.

9. Natural Approach of Teaching English

1. It was developed by

Tracy Terell and Stephen Krashen.

2. They hypothesised that you can learn a language by using it naturally in an environment like our mother tongue. 

3. They said a second language can be acquired if we have an environment.

Krashen’s Five Hypotheses

1. Natural Order Hypothesis

LSRW comes naturally.

2. Acquisition/Learning  Hypothesis

Acquisition is better than learning.

3. Monitor Hypothesis

कुछ भाषा या नियम जानने के बाद वह नॉलेज आपको आगे मॉनिटर करता है भाषा सीखने के लिए। गलत सही पता चलता रहता है।

4. Input Hypothesis

बच्चा जो जानता है, ना उससे कम, ना उसके बराबर बल्कि उससे थोड़ा ज्यादा (+1) input दिया जाना चाहिए। जिससे कि उसकी क्षमता बढ़े, उसका level up हो। input कम होगा तो कोई फायदा नहीं होगा और बराबर होने पर वह बोर हो जाएगा।

5. Affective Filter Hypothesis

आपके emotions आपके भाषा इस्तेमाल में problem दे सकते हैं। बेहतर भाषा सीखने और उपयोग करने के लिए आपको emotionally stable होना चाहिए।

Important Method    Focus       Characteristics

Grammar Translation

Writing literary texts

Translate from English into

your native language

Direct Method (also called

Everyday spoken language

Student learns by

Natural Method)

associating meaning directly

in English

Audio-Lingual Method

Sentence and sound patterns

Listening and speaking drills

and pattern practice only in English

Language families

a. Indo-European (eg: Hindi,

Gujarati, English etc.),

b. Dravidian (eg: Tamil, Telugu,

Kannada, Malayalam),

c. Tibeto-Burman (eg

languages of Eastern India),

d. Austro- Asiatic (eg:

languages in Jharkhand & Central Asia)

e. Andamanese.

Important Terminology for TET English Pedagogy

पहले 3 शब्द समझ लो

1. Spelling means return form

2. Pronunciation

3. Meaning

1. Homograph

 A homograph is a word that shares the same written form as

another word but has a different meaning. A disease dysgraphia writing problem

E.g. Lead, Lead

Live live

ग्राफ मतलब लिखने की बात हो रही है। 

लिखा एक ही तरीके से जाता है। अधिकांशतः बोला भी अलग ही जाता है, same भी हो सकता है किंतु मीनिंग हमेशा अलग रहेगा। 

जब उच्चारण एक रहेगा तो वह Homonym भी कहला सकते हैं।

2. Homophone

Homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as

another word but that has a different spelling and meaning.

Eg. Two, Too.

Son sun

Sea see

Week weak

Know no

मतलब उच्चारण एक ही होता है किंतु स्पेलिंग और मीनिंग अलग होता है।

Phone से याद रखना है बोलना।

होमोनिम भी कहला सकते हैं।

Phone means sound.

3. Homonym

Homonym is a word that is spelt and pronounced like

another word but that has a different meaning

E.g. Suit, Suit

River, River

उच्चारण और स्पेलिंग same किंतु मीनिंग अलग।

मीनिंग सभी में अलग है।

यह होमोफोन और होमोग्राफ दोनों हो सकता है।

Q.1 A word with different spelling and same pronunciation as another, but with different meaning is a/an:

A. Homophone

B. Antonym

C. Synonym

D. Homonym

Q.2 While reading for comprehension, we understand that some pairs are examples

of homograph. Which one of the following is a homograph?

A. lead [metal]/lead [give direction]

B. lead [give direction/dead [mortal]

C. mail [post]/male lgende

D. warm/tepid [being neither too hot nor too cold]

Q.3 Two words have identical sound and spelling, but not related in meaning. It is known as..

A. homonym

B. homograph

C. polysemy

D. homophone

Q.4 The phenomenon, where a single word is associated with two or several related meanings, is known as-

A. homograph

B. polysemy

C. homonymy

D. homonyms

4. Lexical Words (content words)

Content words are words that possess semantic content and

contribute to the meaning of the sentence in which they occur.

E.g. Cat, Principal, Love.


Cat (single word).

traffic light (words together meaning one thing).

take care of (a verbal phrase).

by the way (an idiomatic phrase).

In the Dictionary they are independent in the sense of meaning.  इनका अलग मीनिंग होता है। semantic जिनका अपने आप में एक मीनिंग हो।

Q.1 Content words are called:

A. grammatical words

B. lexical words

C. empty words

D. functors

TET English Pedagogy Part-2

Q.2 Which is a lexical word?

A. love

B. is

C. the

D. might

5. Function Words

Function words, which are words that have very little substantive

meaning and primarily denote grammatical relationships between content words.

E.g. the, can, but, a etc.

Q.3 Which is a function word?

A. however

B. booking

C. principal

D. someone

6. Sight Words

Sight Words are commonly used words that young children are encouraged to memorize as a whole by sight, so that they can automatically recognize these words in print without having to use any strategies to decode.

E.g. better, light, left, hour, etc.

देखते ही पहचान में आ जाए। जो शब्द हम बार-बार देखते रहते हैं, जो देखते ही पहचानने में आ जाते हैं पक्के दोस्त की तरह। देखने के समय दिमाग लगाने की जरूरत नहीं है उसे समझने के लिए। अलग-अलग क्लास के लिए अलग-अलग साइट वर्ड्स हो सकते हैं नीचे दिए गए हैं।

Kindergarten: be, but, do, have, he, she, they, was, what, with

First grade: after, again, could, from, had, her, his, of, then, when

Second grade: around, because, been, before, does, don’t, goes, right, which,


Third grade: better, carry, eight, laugh, light, myself, only, own, shall, together

Fourth grade: area, body, certain, complete, measure, notice, piece, questions, unit, usually

Fifth grade: among, course, equation, language, machine, minutes, produce, quickly, shown, special

Q.4 A ‘sight word’ is a vocabulary


A. that is to be learned by heart.

B. that helps in judging the effectiveness of the author’s style.

C. that the reader recognizes and finds meaningful on sight without a complicated analysis.

D. that needs proper visual understanding of the context.

7. Diphthongs and mono-thongs

Two vowel sounds that are pronounced together to make one sound. 

E.g. Oil, aisle, die.

Q.5 Diphthongs are:

A. Double consonant sounds.

B. Vowel sounds.

C. Double vowel sounds.

D. Consonant sounds.

TET English Pedagogy Part-2

Q.6 Diphthongs are also known as:

A. Vowels with weak sounds.

B. Glide vowels

C. Semi-vowels

D. Pure vowels

What is phoneme, morpheme syntax and semantics?

8. Phonemes  (ध्वनिम) साउंड की सबसे छोटी इकाई यदि उसे हटा दिया जाए तो कोई ध्वनि नहीं रहेगी। जैसे क प

1. Smallest unit of sound.

Eg.Ch, Ph, Th.

In English we have 44 sounds. 

Out of 44, 20 are vowel sounds and 24 are consultant sounds.

Five vowels a, e, i, o, u create 20 sounds.

21 consonants create 24 sounds.

9. Morpheme

1. A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language.

2. Smallest Meaningful combination of Sounds.


मीनिंग की सबसे छोटी यूनिट। यदि इसे तोड़ा जाए तो फिर कोई मीनिंग नहीं बचेगा।

Un है। 

Unusual  है।

Morphology is the study of meaning.

10. Syntax वाक्य विन्यास

1. The system of rules for the structure of a sentence in a language.

E.g. sub+verb+obj.

11. Semantics

a. The study of the meanings of words and phrases.

मीनिंग की स्टडी को कहते हैं। context के according सही अर्थ होगा या नहीं।

उदाहरण के लिए E.g

My uncle has expired. (×)

इस वाक्य में syntax तो सही है किंतु अर्थ गलत है।

Medicines are expired.

My uncle has passed away.

My uncle is no more.

Q.1 A word gets its meaning:

A. From dictionary only

B. Spelling

C. From its origin

D. In relation to its context

Q.2 A phoneme is:

A. A diphthong

B. A vowel sound

C. A single unit of sound

D. A single unit of a word

Q.3 The sentence ‘Madam drives a bicycle’ is:

A. correct syntactically but semantically incorrect.

B. correct semantically but syntactically incorrect.

C. semantically as well as syntactically correct.

D. semantically as well as syntactically incorrect.

12. Bottom-up Approach



Sentences/ phrases



13. Top-down Approach



Sentences/ phrases



TET English Pedagogy Part-2

Maxims of Language Teaching

Maxims of teaching are of universal significance.

छोटे-छोटे वेरीफाइड फार्मूला है टीचिंग के लिए। यह सार्वभौमिक महत्व रखते हैं चाहे आप बच्चे को कहीं भी पढ़ाओ।

These Maxims help the teacher to teach systematically.

टीचर को हेल्प करते हैं टीचिंग में सिस्टमैटिकली पढ़ाने में। मतलब कहां से शुरू करोगे, कहां पर खत्म करोगे। किन सूत्रों को आप फालो करेंगे।

1. Known to Unknown

यहां पर हम यह नहीं मानते हैं कि बच्चे को कुछ नहीं आता है। मतलब पढ़ाते वक्त हम पहले बच्चे को वह पढ़ाएंगे जो उसे आता है। फिर उसी से जोड़कर वह पढ़ाएंगे जो उसे नहीं आता है।

1. It is based on the fact that a learner is not blank.

2. It is considered that old knowledge lays the foundation of new knowledge.

3. Previous knowledge can be used to increase & widen the outlook of a learner.

E.g. hi and hello

Tree and associates

2. Simple to complex

सरल से कठिन की ओर। पहले आसान चीजें पढ़ाई जाएगी और फिर धीरे-धीरे उसके लेवल के हिसाब से हम बढ़ाते जाएंगे। जैसे हम बेसिकली वीडियो गेम्स खेलते हैं पहले सरल होते हैं और फिर हमारा लेवल बढ़ता जाता है।

1. First simple things should be taught and then complex things.

2. Knowledge of simple things encourages learners so that they can easily understand complex things.

E.g. simple sentences should be taught first. Like get out. May I come in, sir?

3. Concrete to Abstract

आता मूर्त से अमूर्त की ओर। मतलब पहले हम बच्चे को वह सिखाते हैं जो वह देख सकता है टच कर सकता है, फील कर सकता है। जैसे बच्चे को सेब दिखाएं और उसे बताएं कि यह apple है तो वह आसानी से इसे याद रख सकता है।

Eg. Abstract noun

Things taught with the help of concrete objects last for a longer period.

4. Analysis to Synthesis

विश्लेषण से संस्लेषण 

A complex problem when divided into different parts can be understood easily.

Eg. We teach different parts of a sentence, and then the learner is able to understand the synthesis of sentences.

5. Induction to Deduction

आगमन से निगमन की ओर 

जैसे यदि आप noun पढ़ा रहे हो तो noun की परिभाषा देने के स्थान पर, पहले उसे बताओगे कि यह noun है। फिर परिभाषा से उसे समझाओगे। आपकी फेवरेट जगह कौन है आपके पापा का नाम क्या है आपकी फेवरेट डिश कौन सी है?

 एग्जांपल टू रुल 

In induction a few examples are given and then a conclusion is drawn.

In deduction, first of all a rule is made known and then examples are given.

Teaching should proceed from induction to deduction.


6. Whole to Part

समग्र से हिस्सों की ओर

मान लो कि कोई कहानी है, कोई कविता है। पहले उसे पूरी सुना दी, बता दी। उसके बाद उसको हिस्से करके समझाओगे।

मतलब कौन सी verb है? कौन सा noun है। Structure क्या है? यह सब बाद में।

First the whole lesson should be taught and then its parts should

be analysed and studied intensively.


TET English Pedagogy Part-2

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